Resistor voltage drop calculator

Voltage Drop Across a Resistor Calculato

Voltage Drop Across a Resistor Calculator. A Voltage divider calculator calculates the voltage drops on each resistor load, when connected in series. Enter the total voltage supply, Resistance of first load, second load and third load and click calculate. You will get the results of voltage drops in volts Dropping Resistor Calculator Enter an Input Voltage and then the Output Voltage and finally the Current Draw (in AMPs) in the fields above then press CALCULATE to find other values. Hit RESET to clear the form, or SAMPLE if you want to see a sample calculation Voltage Drop Calculator. This is a calculator for the estimation of the voltage drop of an electrical circuit. The NEC data tab calculates based on the resistance and reactance data from the National Electrical Code (NEC). The Estimated resistance tab calculates based on the resistance data estimated from the wire size Voltage divider calculator - calculates the voltage drops on each resistor load, when connected in series V S is the source voltage, measured in volts (V), R 1 is the resistance of the 1st resistor, measured in Ohms (Ω). R 2 is the resistance of the 2nd resistor, measured in Ohms (Ω). V out is the output voltage, measured in volts (V), Enter any three known values and press Calculate to solve for the other

Voltage Divider Calculator; Voltage Divider Calculator. Input Voltage Volts. Resistor R1 Ω. Resistor R2 Ω. Output Voltage Volts. Calculate Values Reset Form. To calculate the Input Voltage enter Resistor R1, Resistor R2 and Output Voltage and then click Calculate Values As we all know, a resistor is a device that offers resistance to the current flowing through it. Then, by applying Ohm's law, the resistor will offer a voltage drop across a resistive device and it is given as: V(drop) = I × R where, I = current through the resistor in (A) ampere R = resistance in (Ω) ohms V(drop) = voltage drop in (V) volts. How to calculate voltage drop over resistance step-wise : Step1: Simplify the given circuit

Voltage-Drop Resistor Calculator - Tripo

To understand how a potential diver formulae is derived we need Ohms law calculator , according to Ohms law the voltage drop across any location is a product of the current flowing through the circuit and the Resistance across it. Voltage = Current Flowing through × Resistance across the voltage And the resistance of the wire is 1 Ω. Then the current will be I = 230 V / (21 Ω + 2 × 1 Ω) = 10 A. The voltage drop will be Vdrop = 10 A × 2 × 1 Ω = 20 V. Therefore, only 210 V will be available for your appliance. And P = 20 V × 10 A = 200 W will be wasted as heat in the wire To calculate voltage across a resistor in a series circuit, start by adding together all of the resistance values in the circuit. Then, divide the voltage across the circuit by the total resistance to find the current. Once you have the current, calculate voltage for the individual resistors by multiplying the current by the resistance

Voltage Drop Calculato

To use the Tube Dissipation Using Cathode Resistor Voltage Drop calculator enter your Tube Type and Plate-to-Cathode Voltage at the top of the page, then enter the Number of Tubes that share a cathode resistor, the measured Voltage Drop across the cathode resistor and the Cathode Resistor's Ohm Value and click Calculate LED Resistor Calculator To calculate the resistor needed for a simple LED circuit, simply take the voltage drop away from the source voltage then apply Ohm's Law. In other words..

Quick online free voltage drop calculator and energy losses calculation, formula of electrical DC and AC power wire voltage drop for various cross section cables, power factor, lenght, line, three-phase, single phase. Formula to calculate voltage drop and energy losses So we can use a 2.5KΩ resistor as our R2 resistor with the R1 resistor being 10KΩ. So it's easy to see now how any voltage can be obtained with a resistor voltage divider circuit. To check calculations for voltage dividers, see the Voltage Divider Calculator. This way, you can check calculations you've made to see if they are correct and.

This electronics video tutorial explains how to calculate the voltage drop across a resistor using ohm's law. It contains a few examples and practice proble.. Select Calculate missing resistor under Mode. Now input the total resistance you want you circuit/collection of resistors to have. Start by introducing the values of the resistors you already know (new fields will appear as needed). The calculator automatically gives you the required missing resistor after each input

Voltage Divider Calculator - RapidTables

How to convert a 9-volt DC to a 3

A Zener diode is an electronic component utilised in DC voltage regulator circuits. A series resistor R is typically required to produce a voltage drop V Z across the load.In this circuit diagram, the unregulated input voltage is V S, and the regulated output voltage across the load is V L, which is the same as that across the diode.The series resistor R provides a voltage drop and we. Voltage drop calculator - calculates the voltage drops on resistor load, when connected in series. Voltage drop across a resistor calculator Voltage drop calculator through resistor (The calculator is at the bottom of the page if you want to skip it) If you want to try running something from a higher recommended voltage there are several ways to do it. The simplest is by Dropping Resistor Vin/Vout = R1/R2+1 Vout=Vin*R2/R1+R2 8th edition. Appsloveworld free online voltage drops calculator so that you can calculate voltage drop across resistor,when connected in series.here is a example of voltage divider calculator with 3 resistors.you can also find voltage divider rule formula Voltage drop is the Vbe(sat) value, you will get this from the datasheet looking at the graph for Vbe and Vce(sat) vs. collector current. To insure to turn the transistor fully on, you can double the value for collector current, which will result in a base resistor value half of what this calculator gives you

Voltage Divider Calculato

This tool uses formulas from IPC-2221 to calculate the width of a copper printed circuit board conductor or trace required to carry a given current while keeping the resulting increase in trace temperature below a specified limit. If the length of the trace is also provided, the total resistance, voltage drop, and power loss due to trace resistance are also calculated The capacitor voltage divider calculator calculates the output voltage of the voltage divider network based on the value of capacitor, C1, capacitor, C2, and the input voltage, VIN.This output voltage, which is the voltage that is dropped across capacitor, C2, is calculated by the formula, VOUT= VIN (C1/(C1 + C2)). According to this formula, the capacitor with the lower capacitance value will.

Voltage Divider Calculator from AB Electronics U

To view the voltage drop across any resistor, one can perform either Bias point simulation or transient simulation. After making the circuit and running bias point simulation, just click on the icon shown in the photo below. This will show the voltage across all the resistors in the circuit When resistors are connected in parallel, more current flows from the source than would flow for any of them individually, so the total resistance is lower. Each resistor in parallel has the same full voltage of the source applied to it, but divide the total current amongst them. 5. Is resistance higher in series or parallel If one resistor only drops one volt from the original voltage (only drops one volt because of its resistance value) and we add another resistor in series with the same value, then that second resistor would also drop one volt. That is not true, as it depends on the current that enters the second resistor

For a parallel circuit the output will be the total resistance and the current through each resistor. series circuit calculation: total resistance= r1 +r2+rn I=v/r_total voltage drop in r1 = r1*I and so on until r5. i'm trying to do the calculations for voltage drop using an array but its not working and i'm not sure why In direct current circuits, the reason for voltage drop is the resistance.For understanding the voltage drop in DC circuit, we can take an example. Assume a circuit which consist of DC source, 2 resistors which are connected in series and a load.. Here; every element of the circuit will have a certain resistance, they receive and lose energy to some value

How to calculate Voltage Drop across Resistor detail

Wheatstone Bridge Calculator - Good Calculator

  1. um conductors operating at the temperature selected and is based on the ac/dc resistance or impedance from NEC 2011 Chapter 9, Tables 8 and 9 for stranded conductors operating on a DC or AC 60Hz system
  2. Example 1. Calculate voltage drop in a single-phase dc circuit. A solid #14 copper two-wire cable that is 750 feet long supplies a 125 ohm load resistor for heating purposes at 75 deg. C. Find the voltage drop in the cable; and find the resulting voltage across the load resistor
  3. Voltage drop calculation in resistors (The calculator is at the bottom of the page if you want to jump forward) If you want to try to perform something from a higher recommended voltage, there are several ways to do it. The simplest is of a falling resistor. This is useful for simpler, non-electronic devices that should use the appropriate adjuste
  4. Say powertube B+ is 340v and 1k resistor drops that to 320v to the preamp. 20v is dropped across the resistor. If B+ rises to 500v you need to burn off 180v to feed the preamp 320v. Make the resistor 9x larger for 9x voltage drop. 9k ohms (9.1k ohms is a close standard value). You're done
  5. imize voltage drop so that your system performs at peak efficiency. This voltage drop calculator is a tool to help plan your wiring run.
  6. In a series RL circuit, the same current I flows through both the inductor and the resistor. The inductor's voltage V L leads the common current by 90° and the resistor voltage is in phase with the common current. From Kirchhoff's voltage law, the sum of the voltage drops must equal the total voltage V T.Resistor and inductor voltages V R and V L are 90° out of phase with each other.

Voltage Drop Calculator - RapidTables

Current limiting Resistor calculator for leds. Current Limiting Resistor Calculator for Leds. Some good values to try: Supply Voltage VOLTS Voltage Drop Across LED VOLTS Desired LED Current MILLIAMPS How many leds connected Exact calculated resistance OHMS. Nearest higher rated resistor Wattage recommendation for the resistor WATTS This calculator helps determine the output voltage of the divider circuit given the input (or source) voltage and the resistor values. Take note that the output voltage in actual circuits might be different, since resistor tolerance and load resistance (where the output voltage is connected) become factors

LED Resistor Calculator Enter the voltage source, voltage drop across the LED, and the current through the LED into the calculator. The calculator will display the need resistance for the simple circuit How can I calculate what will be the voltage drop after the resistor? For example, I have a 100 ohm resistor, and the voltage on its input is 5V. What will be the voltage after the resistor? Not enough information. BTW, I don't think you mean vol.. This LED calculator will help you design your LED array and choose the best current limiting resistors values. To get started, input the required fields below and hit the Design Circuit. Power supply voltage (V) Hello all, I am trying to desing 24V optoisolated input for arduino, but I am having problem with logic 0 voltage. I have used optoisolator TLP627, based on datasheet typical LED forward current 16mA. So I calculated: 24-1,3 = 22,7V 22,7 / 0,016 = 1,4Kohm Problem is that optoisolator photo transistoris is saturated enough to pullup arduino IO pin HIGH even with LED forward voltage 2V

Voltage Drop Calculator - Wire Size Calculato

Example 1: The blue LED has a typical forward voltage drop of 3.2 V, therefore a 5 Ω resistor is required when using a 3.3 V supply voltage. However, if you are using a 5 V supply voltage, then a 90 Ω resistor is needed. As you can see, the resistor value increases as the supply voltage increases The current divider calculator used to determine the current going through any branch in a parallel circuit. Enter a current source and resistance values to calculate the current through each resistor. The calculator will display the current through each resistor entered. You can calculate up to 10 branches It has the 1 ohm resistor in series with the source, so surely there must be a voltage drop across that, so less voltage across the capacitor, right? by carrolllip86 November 16, 2016: 4 Answers Answer by mikerogerswsm. When using such ginormous capacitors be sure to leave the vent plug unobstructed. On one. Appsloveworld free online voltage drops calculator so that you can calculate voltage drop across resistor,when connected in series.here is a example of voltage divider calculator with 3 resistors.you can also find voltage divider rule formula. please enter Input voltage VT resistance R1,resistance R2,resistance R3 and click on calculate button for obtaining voltage drop Input total voltage: [

Voltage Divider Calculator 3 Resistors - Voltage Disturbanc

  1. LED Resistor Calculator Single led - Leds in series - Leds in parallel Voltage drop is usually 1.9~2.1V for AlGaInP, 3.1~3.5 for InGaN and 1.2V for Infrared. Current is usualy 20mA, for UFO LEDs current is: 30mA for InGaN and 50mA for AlGaInP. Supply Voltage - depends what you have at disposal. Usuall is 6V or 12V source
  2. Add an additional 10 percent to the voltage requirement, plus 1.4v to allow for the inherent voltage drop of a bridge rectifier. For example, if you need a 15v output, the calculation would look like this: 15v + 1.5v + 1.4v = 18.9v
  3. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATOR Transformer secondary side voltage drop calculation under load and various load power factor. Voltage drop due to transformer impedance can be calculated. User can select the transformer impedance
  4. 1K resistor voltage drop. V=.00109 X 10000 V=10.9V. Resistance in Parallel. In this circuit we will look at the same power supply, however the loads are now in parallel. The key here will be that both legs of the parallel circuit will be at the same voltage, so in this circuit both resistors will drop 12v, however they will do so at different.

Voltage Drop Table NEC Calculator (Aluminum & Copper Wire

  1. In this case, a resistor with a rated power of 1/4 [W] will be chosen, which is well above the average power. Edit: VBS will be employed instead of VGS if you are using a bootstrap IC. VBS is the MOSFET driver's effective voltage to turn on the MOSFET
  2. The instantaneous values of current and voltage in an AC resistive circuit can be utilized to give the resistance in its Ohmic form by using Ohm's law. Consider the following resistive circuit with an AC supply. Let the supply voltage be V (t) = VMax sin ωt connected to a resistor R. Let the instantaneous voltage across the resistor be V R
  3. imum required resistor value to ensure that resistor will not overheat, so its recommended that to double the power rating of resistor that you have calculated, therefore, choose 1.28W x 2 = 2.56W resistor for this circuit. Resistor power rating (Value is doubled) = 2.56W (280 mW
  4. A 12v battery/ 12V power source, a 2.2k ohm resistor, 300-ohm resistor 100uF capacitor, 0.1uF capacitor, IC LM317, a Heat-sink. Working: The LM317 is an adjustable voltage regulator IC competent of supplying more than (for more detail on LM317 regulator and its working go to this link) 12v to 9v converter using resistors as a voltage divider
  5. The polarity of this voltage drop is positive (+) at point 3 with respect to point 4. We can mark the polarity of the resistor's voltage drop with negative and positive symbols, in accordance with the direction of current; whichever end of the resistor the current is entering is positive with respect to the end of the resistor it is exiting
  6. voltage drop across resistor calculator. 5R1 = 30 20V has to reduced 2V, then we use 1:10 ratio voltage divider. So we have to Find the voltage drop on resistor R3. The formula for calculating the output voltage is based on Ohms Law and is shown below

LED Dropping Resistor Calculator - PCBoard

Voltage drop calculator across resistors Voltage splitter calculator: calculates the voltage droplets for each resistance load when connected to the series. Enter the full voltage supply and press the Calculate button: Voltage distribution rule The voltage droplet in the constant voltage source VT and resistors series is given by the following formula: Voltage Solution: Use the Javascript calculator below: Enter Input Voltage: Enter Desired Output Voltage: Select Resistor Sequence: E96E24. Select Resistor Scale (Ohms): 1101001000100001000001000000 Voltage drop across resistor calculator dc (The calculator is at the bottom of the page if you want to skip ahead) If you want to try to run something off a higher recommended voltage there are several ways to do it. The simplest is a dropping resistor. This is useful for simple and no more complex electronic devices, which should use the properl Here we provided calculator for Wire Sizes, Wire resistance, Voltage drop on the specified length as well as Voltage at the end of wire if you would take in account wire resistivity. Many people didn't realize, that wire resistivity can be used advantageously for current limiting purposes Resistive voltage divider. Calculates resistors of the voltage divider network automatically. Assumes the required output current to be negligible. Example 1: Must calculate the resistors for a 5V to 1.25V voltage divider using 1% resistor series. View example

See our standard resistor calculator for a real world resistor value. Equations: R2= (Vo-Vr)*R1/V The output voltage \(V_{out}\) must here be tapped parallel to the resistor, otherwise we would have a low-pass filter. When a high frequency is applied to the input, an imperceptibly small voltage drops across the capacitor. The output voltage \(V_{out}\) is thus almost identical to the input voltage \(V_{in}\) Capacitor charge and discharge calculator Calculates charge and discharge times of a capacitor connected to a voltage source through a resistor. Example 1: Must calculate the resistance to charge a 4700uF capacitor to almost full in 2 seconds when supply voltage is 24V: View example Voltage drop across one resistor calculator If you are looking for how to calculate the voltage drop through a resistor, then SoManyTech brings you the complete theory and practical examples about voltage drop through a resistor. Before that we will review Ohm's law:. This external resistor quick-start calculator tool lets you easily calculate valid external resistor values relative to voltage reference, supply and load-current bounds. With these inputs, you can instantly view the resulting calculations and use the color-coded indications to understand whether the calculated outputs are valid or invalid

Current Loop voltage drop calculator. 4-20 mA current loop systems need sufficient voltage supply to function. When the voltage supply is insufficient, the maximum current may not be reached. When the maximum current is not reached the measured value is not transferred correct which can cause serious system errors Voltage drop calculation in resistors (The calculator at the bottom of the screen is if you want to skip ahead) if you want to try to run something off of the recommended higher voltage there are several ways to do it. The easiest is by a dropping resistance This free resistor calculator converts the ohm value and tolerance based on resistor color codes and determines the resistances of resistors in either parallel or series, as well as the resistance of a conductor. Experiment with the voltage drop and Ohm's Law calculators, or explore hundreds of other calculators

  1. imum voltage of the input: V OUT: Desired output voltage: I OUT: Desired output current: f MIN: Minimum desired output switching frequency: V RIP: Desired peak to peak output ripple voltage: R 1: Resistor for setting V OU
  2. Voltage Drop in Direct Current Circuits. In DC circuits, the actual cause of voltage drop may be the resistance. For realizing the voltage drop in DC circuit, we are able to consider an illustration. Suppose a circuit that includes DC supply, A couple of resistors hooked up in series and a load
  3. als = 480 - 7.55 = 472.45 Volt
  4. To calculate the voltage dropped across the 1st resistor, voltage source is multiplied by the value of that resistor and divided by the total resistance. The resulting value is the voltage drop across the first resistor. Consequently, that leaves Vin - V resistor1 as the value left to drop across the second resistor
  5. Resistor color code calculator - 3, 4 and 5 band resistors . Voltage Drop Across a Resistor Calculator . A Voltage divider calculator calculates the voltage drops on each resistor load, when connected in series. Enter the total voltage supply, Resistance of first load, second load and third load and click calculate

Voltage Divider Calculator - Circuit Diges

  1. Resistor Divider Formula. The following formula is used to calculate the output voltage of a circuit with two resistors. Vo= Vs * R2 / (R1 + R2) Where Vo is the output voltage; Vs is the voltage source; R1 and R2 are the resistances of the resistors. Resistor Divider Definitio
  2. Voltage Divider Calculator. One of the most basic and common circuits is the two resistor voltage divider. The ratio of the resistors divides and input voltage down to a lower voltage. This calculator simplifies the task. Voltage Divider Circuit Schemati
  3. Calculate voltage drop of resistor. The voltage across a resistor is often called a voltage drop if you have a complicated circuit that involves resistors in series and resistors in parallel pick two nearby resistors. A voltage divider calculator calculates the voltage drops on each resistor load when connected in series
  4. The flow of current through the series circuit is I = V/R according to Ohm's Law. So the flow of current is the same in both resistors. So now can calculate the voltage drop across the R2 resistor in the circuit. IR2 = VR2/R2. Vs/( R1+R2) VR2 = Vs (R2/ R1+R2) Similarly, the voltage drop across the R1 resistor can be calculated as. IR1 = VR1/R1. Vs/( R1+R2

AC and DC Voltage Drop Calculator AS/NZS 3008 jCalc

Example in the case of a single led, with a supply voltage of 20volts, at a drop across led of 5volts and a desired current of 12miliamps. The result is: - Limiting resistor = 1250 Ω - Resistor wattage = 0.18 W - Safe pick (resistor's power rating) = 0.3 W - Nearest highest 10% resistor = 1.5 KΩ. Leds in series calculatio Led voltage drop resistor calculator All LEDs require some form of current throttling. Connecting an LED directly to the power supply will burn it in the blink of an eye. The overworked, even soon, will significantly reduce your life and light production. Fortunately, driving a single or a sequence of low-current LEDs (20-30 mA) is a simple task Resistor Voltage Drop Calculate May 19, 2019 Get link; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Email; Other Apps; How To Calculate Voltage Across A Resistor With Pictures. When a current (I) of one Ampere passes through a resistor with a voltage drop (U) of one Volt, the resistance of a resistor (R) corresponds with one Ohm. This ratio is represented by Ohm's law: R.. So if we assume a voltage drop of only one volt, (1.0V) across the resistor giving double the input voltage at 4 volts, a quick calculation would give us a single pull-up resistor value of 50kΩ. Reducing the resistive value further, will produce a smaller voltage drop but increase the current

dc voltage drop calculator - Triplett 9325 Triplett 9325 True RMS AC/DC Clamp-On Meter, 1000A AC/DC Voltage to 600V, 60MO Resistance, -4/140F Temperature Range, 10Hz/10MHz Frequency Range True RMS Measurements In a series RC circuit, the same current I flows through both the capacitor and the resistor. The capacitor's voltage V C lags the common current by 90° and the resistor voltage is in phase with the common current. From Kirchhoff's voltage law, the sum of the voltage drops must equal the total voltage V T.Resistor and capacitor voltages V R and V C are 90° out of phase with each other. forward voltage drop variation among the LEDs at the split current level per the LED data sheet gives R as the optimum value. This resistor value is also given by the reciprocal of the magnitude of the slope of segment AB in Figure 5. The higher the resistor value, the closer are the current values. The same formula is valid for more tha Supply voltage: Type in a voltage greater than the LED voltage drop for a single LED circuit and parallel connection or the sum of all voltage drops when connecting multiple LEDs in series.. LED current: Type in the single LED current in milliamperes.Common 3 mm and 5 mm LEDs usually operate in the range of 10-30 milliamps, but power LEDs used in lighting and automotive applications can have. Since they are the same value (1000 ohms), the voltage drop across each resistor is the same. Each resistor drops half the supply voltage (6 volts). 3 Resistors in Series: If there were 3 equal value resistors, the voltage would be divided equally between them. They would each have a voltage drop of 4 volts (3*4=12)

Calculate Voltage Drop Across Resistor OnlineVoltage dividing circuit

When a current (I) of one Ampere passes through a resistor with a voltage drop (U) of one Volt, the resistance of a resistor (R) corresponds with one Ohm. This ratio is represented by Ohm's law: R = U ÷ I In electronics, a voltage divider is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage that is a fraction of its input voltage. Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among the components of the divider. A simple example of a voltage divider is two resistors connected in series, with the input voltage applied across the resistor pair and the output voltage emerging from the connection between them. Resistor voltage dividers are commonly used to.

Component, How To Analyze Resistive Circuits Using Ohmsavr - Piezoelectric Sensor and the ADC - ElectricalLED Resistor CalculatorDropping Resistor Calculator | GTSparkplugsToolbox Review: Circuit Sidekick | Make:problem with mc34063 - Page 1Long Tailed Pair CalculatorRMS voltage - Electronics - BasicTables

Calculate the value for a single LED and connect all the LED-resistor pairs in parallel. Resistor precision: select the desired standard resistor precision: 10% (E12), 5% (E24), 2% (E48) or 1% (E96). Use our resistor color code calculator to find out the color bands for different (20%, 0.5%...) precision resistors. How to interpret the result The operating voltage at the load is determined by subtracting the conductor's voltage drop from the voltage source, 120 volts - 6 volts drop = 114 volts. 3. Services - Interestingly there is no recommended voltage drop for service conductors, but this FPN reminds the Code user to consider voltage drop of the service conductors [230-31(c) FPN] How To Calculate The Voltage Drop Across A Resistor In A Led Resistor Calculator.

  • Hur lång tid tar en synundersökning Specsavers.
  • Avstå livsuppehållande behandling.
  • KappAhl Falköping Öppettider.
  • The science of deduction.
  • Brienne Pedigo net worth.
  • Nissan NV200 7 sits.
  • Gasolkamin växthus.
  • Virka fasta maskor runt kant.
  • The science of deduction.
  • Cornetto recipe.
  • Snitta gran.
  • 3D Prima.
  • Cowboy Boot Stores Near me.
  • Earth Overshoot Day 2019 July 29.
  • Lookfantastic Adventskalender 2020.
  • Förstoringsglas app.
  • Why did Theia collide with Earth.
  • Brothers Karamazov Summary.
  • Celine Dion 2020.
  • Ärver sambo skulder.
  • Sandels satt i Pardala by.
  • Wheel lock volley gun.
  • BVG unfallmeldung.
  • Tightrope chords.
  • Ängeldräkt Barn.
  • Mako 18 LTS problems.
  • Centralstation Darmstadt parken.
  • Gesundheit 50 plus.
  • Salvator Mundi Preis.
  • Samsung S7 Edge camera.
  • Drinking games for couples.
  • Kan inte pinga.
  • Canon DSLR wifi Adapter.
  • Google Docs save as template.
  • Lax gurkmeja.
  • Afatiker Wikipedia.
  • Egg Dog plush.
  • The Long March.
  • Street Fighter 1.
  • Windows 10 icons.
  • Skolämnen i England.